Racial & Ethnic Disparities (R/ED)

Racial & Ethnic Disparities exist when minority youth have a rate of contact with the juvenile justice system that is significantly higher from the rate of contact for non-minority youth. R/ED occurs when the proportion of minority youth in a community is lower than the proportion of minority youth involved in the local juvenile justice system. The Division of Juvenile Justice monitors R/ED data at five collection points:

  • Arrest;
  • Diversion;
  • Pre-trial Detention;
  • Disposition Commitments; and
  • Adult Waiver / Transfers.

History of R/ED Mandate

The purpose of the R/ED Core Requirement: ”…implement(ing) policy, practice, and system improvement strategies as applicable, to identify and reduce racial and ethnic disparities among youth who come into contact with the juvenile justice system, without establishing or requiring numerical standards or quotas [223(a)(15) of the Juvenile Justice Reauthorization Act of 2018].” In 1988, the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act established the Disproportionate Minority Confinement (DMC) mandate. In 2002, the mandate was expanded upon and Disproportionate Minority Confinement was changed to Disproportionate Minority Contact, which required states to monitor and plan to reduce DMC at additional contact points. In 2018, DMC was amended to R/ED and since 1994, the State of Alaska’s Division of Juvenile Justice and its citizen advisory board, the Alaska Juvenile Justice Advisory Committee (AJJAC), have been working to reduce DMC and R/ED in Alaska’s juvenile justice system.

R/ED Publications

There is a growing body of information about how R/ED are created and how it is being reduced. Here are a few R/ED resources:

For additional information, please contact:

State of Alaska
Dept of Family and Community Services
Division of Juvenile Justice
240 Main Street, Suite 701
P.O. Box 110635
Juneau, AK 99811-0635
Email: hss.djj@alaska.gov